All About EDA in Data Science

For a comprehensive study, data can be fitted into various models. But first, you must figure out which model is the best fit for your data.  

As a result, you end up studying the data, its form, and peculiarities, and finally coming to a conclusion that defines the current condition of the data and if it requires more processing before statistical and scientific approaches can be used.  

Exploratory Data Analysis, or EDA, is the term used in data science to describe the process of exploring data using descriptive statistics, visualization techniques, and presentation approaches.    

In data science, EDA is analogous to a service adviser performing a preliminary assessment of your vehicle, asking a few basic questions, establishing expectations, and then bringing the vehicle in for service. It is a crucial step since it is one of the first things done with the data. Many inferences and subsequent actions are dependent on this investigation.   

In this post, we will learn all about Exploratory Data Analysis, so let’s begin-   

What is EDA? 

Data scientists use Exploratory Data Analysis to review and analyze data sets and summarize their important factors, usually incorporating data visualization tools. It allows you to imagine how to manipulate data sources best to get the answers you need, enlist the help of scalable data scientists to uncover structures, identify anomalies, test a theory, or check assumptions.   

EDA is mainly used to explore what data can provide in addition to formal modeling or hypothesis testing and gain a better understanding of data set factors and their relationships. It’s also useful for us to know if the statistical approaches you’re considering for data analysis are appropriate.   

EDA approaches were developed in the 1970s by an American mathematician named John Tukey and are widely applied in the data discovery process today.    

Types of Exploratory Data Analysis 

The four fundamental types of EDA are:   

1- Univariate Non-graphical: 

This is the simplest part of data analysis. The data, which has only one variable, is examined. It does not negotiate with spurs or links because it is a single variable. The primary goal of the univariate analysis is to evaluate the data and uncover patterns within it.   

2- Univariate Graphical: 

Non-graphical methods do not provide a complete picture of the data. As a result, visual tactics are used.   

The following are examples of univariate graphics:   

  • Stem-and-leaf plots show all data values as well as the measurement pattern. 
  • Histograms are bar graphs in which each bar represents the number of trials (count) or the percentage of trials (count/total count) for a range of values. 
  • The first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum are shown visually in box plots, which graphically depict the minimum’s five-number summary.   

3- Multivariate Non-graphical: 

Multivariate data is made up of many variables. These EDA approaches commonly use statistics or cross-tabulation to show the relationship between two or more factors in the data.    

4- Multivariate Graphical: 

Representations are used in multivariate data to show links between two or more kinds of data. A bar chart or grouped bar plot is a commonly used visual. Each group indicates one level of one of the variables, and each bar inside an association reflects the degrees of the several variables.   

Other popular multivariate graphics categories include:  

  • A scatter plot combines data points on a vertical and horizontal axis to show how much one variable impact another. 
  • A multivariate chart visually represents the relationships between causes and responses. 
  • A run chart is a graph of data that has been plotted over time. 
  • A bubble chart is a data visualization approach in which several circles (bubbles) are displayed in a two-dimensional conspiracy or plot. 
  • A heat map is a visual representation of data in which the relevance of data is indicated by color.   

The Significance of EDA in Data Science 

The fundamental goal of EDA is to facilitate the examination of data before making any assumptions. It allows you to see apparent errors and inconsistencies, decipher data structures, identify unusual occurrences or outliers, and discover intriguing relationships between variables.   

Data scientists use exploratory analysis to guarantee that their results are reliable and meet any desired project findings and objectives. EDA also helps stakeholders by ensuring that they are questioning moral issues. In addition, EDA can assist with categorical variables, confidence intervals, and standard deviations. When EDA is completed, and ideas are presented, its qualities include more advanced data analysis, modeling, and machine learning.   

Use Cases of EDA in Data Science 

Data scientists often use EDA before attempting other sorts of modeling. It is widely used in data analysis to find outliers, trends, patterns, and flaws in datasets. Now, let’s look at some cases to help you understand what EDA is all about, what you’re looking for, and what questions you’re trying to answer.    

Missing Data: 

A lot of inconsistencies come with data. Missing data is one of them. Even though the overall information is good, there may be missing values in some columns within the data set. This can influence your outcomes and result in a model that isn’t precise enough for future purposes.   

The missing package in Python is an excellent approach to graphically discovering missing variables. Obviously, this is for a large data collection. This offers you a visual representation of how much data is missing and on which parameters it is missing.    

Summary Statistics: 

Another example is summary statistics, which provide a general overview of your numerical data. 

EDA is used in the retail industry, where experts and BI tools analyze data to uncover insights into sale trends, top categories, etc. EDA is also used in health care analysis to investigate new trends in a consumer market or industry, determine flu strains that could be more pervasive in the new flu season, and verify patient population homogeneity, among other things.    


Outliers are data that fall on the extremes or even beyond the normal range of values for a variable, providing you with a clue or a chance to investigate.    

How Can EDA Improve Your Business? 

Exploratory Data Analysis’ primary objective is to assist in data analysis before making any assumptions. It can help identify evident mistakes, better understand data trends, discover outliers or unexpected events, and find intriguing connections between variables, among other things.  

Data scientists may use exploratory analysis to guarantee accurate results and suitable for any targeted business outcomes and objectives. EDA also supports stakeholders by ensuring that the right questions are being asked. EDA can answer questions about standard deviations, categorical variables, and confidence intervals.   

After EDA is completed and insights are extracted, its characteristics can be used for more sophisticated data analysis or modeling, including machine learning.   

The potential applications of Exploratory Data Analysis solutions are numerous, but it all boils down to this: Exploratory Data Analysis is all about getting to clearly understand your research before making any assertions or moving further with Data Mining. It assists you in avoiding developing faulty models or constructing accurate models based on incorrect data. 

If this stage is done correctly, any organization will get the confidence they need in their data, allowing them to begin implementing sophisticated machine learning algorithms. However, skipping this critical stage might lead to a poor foundation for your Business Intelligence System.   

In Conclusion- 

Exploratory Data Analysis is unquestionably one of the most crucial processes in the data extraction process. You should concentrate all your force and might on the EDA stage if you want to lay a solid foundation for your comprehensive analytical procedure.    

If you are looking for a data science consulting service, you should contact SG Analytics today. Our data science services can help you create a profitable strategy for your business growth.

Leave a Comment